What are the different types of Neurofeedback?


With almost 50 years of clinical use behind it, the field of neurofeedback has diversified into a wide range of approaches and methods.

All neurofeedback methods tend to be effective, however how quickly you see results and how specific to your goals those result will be all comes down to the skill of the clinician and the capability of his tools.

Neurofeedback systems range from simple concentration machines right up to complete sensor arrays with deep brain imaging capability. They fall into three broad categories:

  • Brand name Neurofeedback systems
  • EEG Neurofeedback (traditional neurofeedback)
  • 3D Neurofeedback (QEEG LoRETA neurofeedback)

Branded Neurofeedback

Brand name neurofeedback refers to the ever growing array of ‘packaged’ brain training available.

These systems often re-brand neurofeedback as ‘non-linear’, ‘decoded’, ‘brain state training’, ‘brain conditioning’ or ‘neural-optimization’, often accompanied by a claim of uniqueness. Others franchise a name or method, using components of dual-sensor EEG neurofeedback (see below) and a variety of pre-built training protocols.

While generally effective, these brand name systems are limited by their built-in functions and particular style, making it difficult to zero in on particular goals or problem areas. They require minimal training to use (a few days to a couple of weeks), greatly adding to their limitations.

These systems appeal to those just starting out in neurofeedback therapy. Basic training is provided, you have the backing of an established brand, and the equipment is relatively inexpensive so services can be offered at a low price. The limited training required makes it cheap and easy to train new staff, and quickly expand your business.

Of course for the consumer, these are among the drawbacks.

Every year these systems come up with a new marketing gimmick, making it intentionally difficult to tell whether or not a provider is using a ‘brand-name’ system or not. There are a number of companies in the market, the dominant brands include Neuroptimal (formerly Zengar), Crecet (formerly Brain State), and EEGinfo (aka Othmer Method).


EEG is traditional surface neurofeedback, as has been used for decades with great success.

Next to the sales-savvy trademark products, EEG neurofeedback has far less flash and mystique – however it more than makes up for it in flexibility and efficacy.

A skilled therapist can do anything that a brand name system can do, and more. With a full range of equipment and brain training approaches available, the therapist is free to work differently with each individual and take a far more active role in the brain training.

The most common EEG neurofeedback uses two sensors; 2 brainwave sensors, 2 ear sensors, and a ground. With these, the clinician can train surface brain activity and properly tailor that training to the individual. With a good clinician at the helm, EEG neurofeedback can be highly effective for a wide range of conditions.

Because of the greater expertise required, EEG neurofeedback practitioners are usually smaller, one-clinic businesses. This makes them more difficult to find, but well worth the effort.

Most EEG neurofeedback therapists integrate elements of the next category into their practice, further expanding their capabilities.


LoRETA Neurofeedback expands on the capabilities of surface neurofeedback with 3D brain imaging and training tools.

In the hands of a skilled clinician, it is the ultimate brain training toolkit.

Using a full 19 sensor cap, the clinician is able to train any number of areas together (as opposed to individual surface areas with the more common 2 sensor neurofeedback). By using a medical research database (Z-score) and deep brain source imaging (LoRETA), 3D neurofeedback can directly train entire brain networks; targeting overall electrical activity (amplitude), brain connectivity (coherence), processing speed (phase), and more.

This is made possible by more advanced imaging capability – if you can detect it, you can train it. Better imaging equals better results. Better targeting means better reliability. Training multiple areas at once means less sessions.

For clinicians, being able to see exactly what is going on over the entire brain at all times is a real advantage, and by integrating research software the clinician can map, track, and keep the training entirely up to date.

3D neurofeedback takes more skill and experience to operate, and the equipment required runs at a good twenty times the cost of basic equipment. Hence, sessions usually cost about a third more than for traditional neurofeedback – however one requires far fewer sessions to see results.

If you are interested in starting up in neurofeedback and are looking for more detailed information, check our neurofeedback equipment buyers below.

Neurofeedback Buyers Guide
Purchasing Neurofeedback Equipment
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From the 1950’s to today.
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